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i-9 update2


Section 274A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (Act), 8 U.S.C. 1324a, requires all
employers to verify the employment eligibility and identify of all employees hired to work in the

United States

after November 6, 1986. To comply with the law, an employer is responsible for the completion of an Employment Eligibility Verification form (Form I-9) for all employees, including

United States

citizens. Completed I-9s are retained by the employer for three years after the date of hire or one year after the date that employment is terminated, whichever occurs later. The failure to properly complete and retain I-9s may subject the employer to criminal and monetary penalties.

There is no rule or regulation mandating where I-9 forms must be retained.  However, best practices would dictate keeping I-9 forms separate from other personnel records. If an audit occurs, it is more efficient to avoid searching for I-9 forms in individual personnel files. Maintaining separate I-9 forms also makes it easier to conduct periodic self-audits of compliance status.

The law holds employers to a “reasonably prudent person” standard to determine whether the documents an employee presents reasonably appear to be genuine, relate to the individual, and authorize employment.  It is important to note that employers may be open to allegations of discrimination if a document that reasonably appears to be genuine is refused.

The law pertaining to I-9 compliance by
employers has been amended to allow for electronic completion and storage of I-9 documents.  The new law further allows for:

As such, companies are now permitted to accept electronic signatures, thus allowing I-9 forms to be prepared and completed entirely electronically.  However, it is important to note that there is no government guidance to date regarding electronic signatures. Electronic signatures may be created through the use of any system that includes: the acknowledgment that the attestation as to accuracy of the information on the form has been read by the employer, and that it provides for the attachment or association of the electronic signature to the Form I-9.

The guidelines issued by the government do make reference to several methods of electronic signature, including electronic signature pads, Personal Identification Numbers (“PINs”), biometrics and “click to accept” dialog boxes.

The Federal Register, published, June 15, 2006, sets out several requirements for the electronic generation or storage system of I-9s.

These regulations require that:

         Documents exhibit a high degree of legibility and readability.

         Any electronic storage system must not be subject to any agreement that would limit or restrict the relevant Government personnel’s access or use on the employer’s business premises.

         Descriptions of the system, including procedures for use and indexing systems, be maintained and made available upon request.

The regulations also allow for the use of multiple electronic systems as long as each meets the relevant standards, and permits reasonable data compression and formatting technologies.


Of course, no new technology comes without its challenges, and electronic completion and storage of I-9’s is no exception.  Manual (or paper) I-9s do not fall victim to internet hackers in the way that electronically stored I-9s can.  Therefore, employers must be cautious to create tamper-free conditions of digital I-9s. 

For Further Information On How We Can Help Your Firm Meet Its Employment Eligibility Verification Obligations, Please Contact Amy Wildes At